Aristotle defined political science as the study of the state. It deals extensively with the (theory and practice) of politics, and the analysis of political systems, political behavior, and political culture.
Political scientists “see themselves engaged in revealing the relationships underlying political events and conditions, and from these revelations they attempt to construct general principles about the way the world of politics works.”
Notwithstanding, political science intersects with other fields; to include economics, law, sociology, history, anthropology, public administration, public policy, national politics, international relations, comparative politics, psychology, political organization, and political theory.
According to Webster: “the·o·ry,” Organized knowledge applicable in a relatively wide variety of circumstances, a system of assumptions, accepted principles, and rules of procedure devised to analyze, predict, or otherwise explain the nature or behavior of a specified set of phenomena.
Which of course, in (reality) to a “common sense” entity, is pretty much a whole lotta nothing…
According to Webster: “noth·ing,” (in context) Nothing is a pronoun denoting the absence of anything; a non-entity.
Although it was codified in the 19th century, when all the social sciences were established, political science has ancient roots; indeed, it originated almost 2,500 years ago with the works of Plato and Aristotle.
Political science is commonly divided into distinct sub-disciplines which together constitute the field: …
Modern political science…
Because political science is essentially a study of human behavior, in all aspects of politics, observations in controlled environments are often challenging to reproduce or duplicate, though experimental methods are increasingly common.
Citing this difficulty, former American Political Science Association President Lawrence Lowell once said “We are limited by the impossibility of experiment. Politics is an observational, not an experimental science.”
Because of this, political scientists have historically observed political elites, institutions, and individual or group behavior in order to identify patterns, draw generalizations, and build theories of politics.
Like all social sciences, political science faces the difficulty of observing human factors that can only be partially observed and who have the capacity for making conscious choices unlike other subjects such as non-human organisms in biology or inanimate objects as in physics.
Despite the overwhelming complexities, contemporary political science has progressed by adopting a variety of methods and theoretical approaches to understanding politics and (methodological) pluralism is a defining feature of contemporary political science.
According to Webster: “meth·od·ol·o·gy,” (in context) A body of practices, procedures, and rules used by those who work in a discipline.
Evolution is the change in the inherited characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary psychology theories argue that humans have evolved a highly developed set of psychological mechanisms for dealing with politics. However, these mechanisms evolved for dealing with the small group politics that characterized the ancestral environment and not the much larger political structures in today’s world. This is argued to explain many important features and systematic cognitive biases of current politics.
(Sidebar). Looking deeper;…
Evolutionary psychology (EP) is an approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological traits such as memory, perception, and language from a modern evolutionary perspective.
It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations – i.e., the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection.
Adaptationist thinking about physiological mechanisms, such as the heart, the lungs, and immune system, are common in evolutionary biology.
Some evolutionary psychologists apply the same thinking to psychology, arguing that the mind has a (modular structure) similar to that of the body, with different modular adaptations serving different functions.
Evolutionary psychologists argue that much of “our” human behavior is the result of “psychological adaptations” that evolved to solve recurrent problems in human ancestral environments. (Source Wikipedia).
In other words, (in reality), political science is governed by the individual at the podium…
In colloquial language and fictional literature, seduction is the process of deliberately enticing a person, to lead astray, as from duty, rectitude, or the like; to corrupt, …
The word seduction stems from Latin and means literally “to lead astray”. As a result, the term may have a positive or negative connotation.
Famous seducers from history or legend include Lilith, …
Lilith (Hebrew: לילית; lilit, or lilith) is a Hebrew name for a figure in Jewish mythology, developed earliest in the Babylonian Talmud, who is generally thought to be in part derived from a class of female demons Līlīṯu in Mesopotamian texts of Assyria and Babylonia.
Giacomo Casanova (Italian pronunciation: [ˈdʒaːkomo kazaˈnɔːva]; 2 April 1725 – 4 June 1798) was an Italian adventurer and author from the Republic of Venice. His autobiography, Histoire de ma vie (Story of My Life), is regarded as one of the most authentic sources of the customs and norms of European social life during the 18th century.
As was not uncommon at the time, Casanova often used pseudonyms, the most frequent being Chevalier de Seingalt (pronounced Saint-Galle as in French). He also published abundantly in French under the name Jacques Casanova de Seingalt.
Casanova become so famous for his often complicated and elaborate affairs with women that his name is synonymous with “womanizer”.
He associated with European royalty, popes and cardinals, along with luminaries such as Voltaire, Goethe and Mozart. He spent his last years in Bohemia as a librarian in Count Waldstein’s household, where he also wrote the story of his life.
Don Juan (Spanish), Don Giovanni (Italian) is a legendary, fictional libertine whose story has been told many times by many authors. El burlador de Sevilla y convidado de piedra (The Trickster of Seville and the Stone Guest) by Tirso de Molina is a play set in the fourteenth century that was published in Spain around 1630.
Evidence suggests it is the first written version of the Don Juan legend. Among the best-known works about this character today are Molière’s play Dom Juan ou le Festin de pierre (1665), Byron’s epic poem Don Juan (1821), José de Espronceda’s poem El estudiante de Salamanca (1840) and José Zorrilla’s play Don Juan Tenorio (1844).
Along with Zorrilla’s work (still performed every year on November 2nd throughout the Spanish-speaking world), arguably the best-known version is Don Giovanni, an opera composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart with libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte, first performed in Prague in 1787 (with Giacomo Casanova probably in the audience) and itself the source of inspiration for works by E. T. A. Hoffmann, Alexander Pushkin, Søren Kierkegaard, George Bernard Shaw and Albert Camus.
The name Don Juan is universally synonymous with the title “womanizer”, especially in Spanish slang, and is often used in reference to hypersexuality.
Giacomo Casanova and the character Don Juan. Seduction as a phenomenon is not the subject of scientific interest, yet similar, more specific terms like short term (mating), (casual sex) or (mating strategies) are indeed used in “Evolutionary psychology.”
The Internet enabled the existence of a Seduction Community which is based around “pseudoscientific” discourse on seduction.
According to Webster: “pseu”do·sci”en·tif“ic” A theory, methodology, or practice that is considered to be without scientific foundation.
According to Webster: “in·teg·ri·ty,” Steadfast adherence to a strict moral or ethical code.
According to my unheard of “Pearlsofprofundity” (unabashed and unpublished) Dictionary: “Integrity,” is choosing the truth over seduction.
According to Webster: “truth,” Conformity to fact or actuality.
According to Webster: “de·pend·ent,” Contingent on another.
These individuals represent the best of America, they’re the American workers. They earn a paycheck and they pay what they owe as they go and they pay their taxes.
According to Webster: “in·de·pend·ent,” Not dependent on other.
This man is a parasite that (falsely) promised America a free lunch to keep himself and his family on the government dole.
According to Webster: “par·a·site,” (in context) n. One who habitually takes advantage of another without contributing to the survival of its host.
The American people deserve better than a self-indulgent parasite with an appetite for Majesty.
Barack Obama, (in my fervent opinion) is the incontrovertible embodiment of the worst of everything “anti-American” and “anti-Christian” that the world has manufactured since Adolf Hitler.
Truth forges understanding, I’ll be back tomorrow