My fellow Americans, Bla-Bla-Bla…

Gregorian calendar 1

The Gregorian calendar, also called the Western calendar and the Christian calendar, is internationally the most widely accepted and used civil calendar.

It has been the unofficial global standard for decades, recognized by international institutions such as the United Nations and the Universal Postal Union.

(Sidebar).

Trivia: When the first day on any month falls on Sunday, the second week of that month will provide all you scary movie fans out there with a…

Friday the 13th 1

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RC03

The Roman calendar changed its form several times between the founding of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. This article generally discusses the early Roman or pre-Julian calendars. The calendar used after 46 BC is discussed under Julian calendar.

The original Roman calendar is believed to have been a lunar calendar, which may have been based on one of the Greek lunar calendars. As the time between new moons averages 29.5 days, its months were constructed to be either hollow (29 days) or full (30 days).

Full months were considered powerful and therefore auspicious; hollow months were unlucky. Unlike currently used dates, which are numbered sequentially from the beginning of the month, the Romans counted backwards from three fixed points: the Nones, the Ides and the Kalends of the following month.

This system originated in the practice of “calling” the new month when the lunar crescent was first observed in the west after sunset. From the shape and orientation of the new moon, the number of days remaining to the nones would be proclaimed. At some point of history dates of months ceased to be connected with lunar phases, but it is unknown when it happened.

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Julian calendar 1

The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC). It took effect in 45 BC (709 AUC). It was the predominant calendar in most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was superseded by the Gregorian calendar.

The Julian calendar has a regular year of 365 days divided into 12 months, as listed in Table of months. A leap day is added to February every four years. The Julian year is, therefore, on average 365.25 days long. It was intended to approximate the tropical (solar) year.

Although Greek astronomers had known, at least since Hipparchus, that the tropical year was a few minutes shorter than 365.25 days, the calendar did not compensate for this difference.

As a result, the calendar year gained about three days every four centuries compared to observed equinox times and the seasons.

This discrepancy was corrected by the Gregorian reform of 1582. The Gregorian calendar has the same months and month lengths as the Julian calendar, but inserts leap days according to a different rule.

Consequently, the Julian calendar is currently 13 days behind the Gregorian calendar; for instance, 1 January in the Julian calendar is 14 January in the Gregorian.

The Julian calendar has been replaced as the civil calendar by the Gregorian calendar in almost all countries which formerly used it, although it continued to be the civil calendar of some countries into the 20th century.

Most Christian denominations in the West and areas evangelized by Western churches have also replaced the Julian calendar with the Gregorian as the basis for their liturgical calendars.

However, most branches of the Eastern Orthodox Church still use the Julian calendar for calculating the dates of moveable feasts, including Easter (Pascha).

Some Orthodox churches have adopted the Revised Julian calendar for the observance of fixed feasts, while other Orthodox churches retain the Julian calendar for all purposes.

The Julian calendar is still used by the Berber people of North Africa and on Mount Athos. In the form of the Alexandrian calendar, it is the basis for the Ethiopian calendar, which is the civil calendar of Ethiopia.

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Advent calendar 1

An Advent calendar is a special calendar used to count or celebrate the days in anticipation of Christmas. The days often overlap with the Christian season of Advent. Despite the name, most commercially available Advent calendars begin on December 1, regardless of when Advent begins, which can be as early as November 27 and as late as December 3. Many take the form of a large rectangular card with “windows” of which there are usually 24: one for each day of December leading up to Christmas Day. One is opened every day leading up to Christmas. The calendar windows open to reveal an image, poem, a portion of a story (such as the story of the Nativity of Jesus) or a small gift, such as a toy or a chocolate item. Some calendars are strictly religious, whereas others are secular in content.

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The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 365 days long and was divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus five extra days (epagomenae, from Greek ἐπαγόμεναι) at the end of the year.

The months were divided into three weeks of ten days each. Because the ancient Egyptian year was almost a quarter of a day shorter than the solar year and stellar events therefore “wandered” through the calendar, it has been referred to as the annus vagus, or “wandering year”.

Based on his understanding of the Palermo Stone, Alexander Scharff believed that the Old Kingdom period observed a year with 320 days.

A tablet from the reign of First Dynasty King Djer (c. 3000 BC) was conjectured by early Egyptologists to indicate that the Egyptians had already established a link between the heliacal rising of Sirius (Egyptian Sopdet, Greek Σείριος Seirios) and the beginning of the year.

However, more recent analysis of the pictorial scene on this tablet has questioned whether it actually refers to Sothis at all.

Current knowledge of this period remains a matter more of speculation than of established fact.

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Hebrew calendar 1

The Hebrew or Jewish calendar (הַלּוּחַ הָעִבְרִי, ha’luach ha’ivri) is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances. It determines the dates for Jewish holidays and the appropriate public reading of Torah portions, yahrzeits (dates to commemorate the death of a relative), and daily Psalm readings, among many ceremonial uses. In Israel, it is used for religious purposes, provides a time frame for agriculture and is an official calendar for civil purposes, although the latter usage has been steadily declining in favor of the Gregorian calendar.

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1434

The Islamic calendar, Muslim calendar or Hijri calendar (AH) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.

It is used to date events in many Muslim countries (concurrently with the Gregorian calendar), and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper days on which to observe the annual fast of Ramadan, to attend Hajj, and to celebrate other Islamic holidays and festivals.

The first year was the Islamic year beginning in AD 622 during which the emigration of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, known as the Hijra, occurred. Each numbered year is designated either H for Hijra or AH for the Latin anno Hegirae (in the year of the Hijra); hence, Muslims typically call their calendar the Hijri calendar.

The current Islamic year is 1434 AH. In the Gregorian calendar 1434 AH runs from approximately 14 November 2012 (evening) to 4 November 2013 (evening).

Muslims in traditional attire

Personal observation: although admittedly, I know little to nothing about the Islamic/Muslim religion, and/or, culture. Albeit, after my research on this offering today I believe that I now understand more about Muslims than I did yesterday.

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The history of Islam concerns the Islamic religion and its adherents, known as Muslims. “Muslim” is an Arabic word meaning “one who submits to God.” Muslims and their religion have greatly impacted the political, economic, and military history of the Old World, especially the Middle East, where lie its roots…

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During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased greatly as new technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and crop yields to increase. Manorialism – the organization of peasants into villages that owed rents and labor service to nobles – and feudalism – a political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rents from lands and manors, were two of the ways of organizing medieval society that developed during the High Middle Ages.

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In North America, this era saw the rise of the Mississippian culture in the modern United States c. 800 CE, marked by the extensive 12th-century urban complex at Cahokia.

The Ancient Pueblo Peoples and their predecessors (9th – 13th centuries) built extensive permanent settlements, including stone structures that would remain the largest buildings in North America until the 19th century.

In Mesoamerica, the Teotihuacan civilization fell and the Classic Maya collapse occurred. The Aztec came to dominate much of Mesoamerica in the 14th and 15th centuries. In South America, the 14th and 15th centuries saw the rise of the Inca. The Inca Empire of Tawantinsuyu, with its capital at Cusco, spanned the entire Andes Mountain Range, making it the most extensive Pre-Columbian civilization. The Inca were prosperous and advanced, known for an excellent road system and unrivaled masonry.

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“Early Modern period” is a term used by historians to refer to the period between the Middle Ages (Post-classical era) and the Industrial Revolution – roughly 1500 to 1800.

The Early Modern period is characterized by the rise of science, and by increasingly rapid technological progress, secularized civic politics, and the nation-state. Capitalist economies began their rise, initially in northern Italian republics such as Genoa.

The Early Modern period also saw the rise and dominance of the mercantilist economic theory. As such, the Early Modern period represents the decline and eventual disappearance, in much of the European sphere, of feudalism, serfdom and the power of the Catholic Church. The period includes the late decades of the Protestant Reformation, the disastrous Thirty Years’ War, the Age of Discovery, European colonial expansion, and the peak of European witch-hunting.

Europe’s Renaissance, beginning in the 14th century, consisted of the rediscovery of the classical world’s scientific contributions, and of the economic and social rise of Europe..

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The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason) was a cultural movement of intellectuals in the 17th and 18th centuries, which began first in Europe and later in the American colonies. Its purpose was to reform society using reason, challenge ideas grounded in tradition and faith, and advance knowledge through the scientific method. It promoted scientific thought, skepticism and intellectual interchange.

It opposed superstition and intolerance, with the Catholic church a favorite target. Some Enlightenment philosophes collaborated with Enlightened despots, who were absolute rulers who tried out some of the new governmental ideas in practice. The ideas of the Enlightenment have had a long-term major impact on the culture, politics, and governments of the Western world.

Originating about 1650 to 1700, enlightenment was sparked by philosophers Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677), John Locke (1632–1704), Pierre Bayle (1647–1706), Voltaire (1694–1778) and physicist Isaac Newton (1643–1727).

The political ideals of the Enlightenment influenced the American Declaration of Independence, the United States Bill of Rights, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, and the Polish–Lithuanian Constitution of May 3, 1791. (Source Wikipedia).

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Alluding to my God-given common sense, ..I see no course but to conclude that ( if ) the Muslim world is living in 1434, a time 350 odd years prior the age of Enlightenment, ..all the Christian world has to do is go into hibernation for 350 years until our Muslim brothers come to understand that Christians aren’t as intolerable as they’ve been lead to believe.

As for my personal belief, if America is such a horrible place, why do such a large number of Muslims come here to attend our schools and universities, ..shop at Walmart, ..and make their way at some point to visit Disneyland?

According to Webster: “en·light·en·ment,” A philosophical movement of the 18th century that emphasized the use of (reason) to scrutinize previously accepted doctrines and traditions that brought about many humanitarian reforms.

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Mayan calendar 1

As the Mayan calendar was established with an end date, it’s a good thing, (at least in my considered opinion) that the majority of mankind chose to go with the Gregorian calendar, which to my delight, guarantees that my (falsely labeled) “entitlement,” i.e., Social Security check will be deposited in my bank account the third day of every month, ..and (should continue) “with proper and responsible governance,” ..for as long as the “Gregorian calendar” remains a part of American culture?

Truth forges understanding, I’ll be back tomorrow

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Crusader Rabbit…

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