Question of the day, ..Genetics.

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What are genetics, and what secrets do they hold?

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Genetics (from Ancient Greek), “genitive” and that from genesis, (“origin”), a discipline of biology, is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms.

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Genetics concerns the process of inheritance from parents to offspring, including the molecular structure and function of genes, gene behavior in the context of a cell or organism (e.g. dominance and epigenetics), gene distribution, variation and change in populations, such as through Genome-Wide Association Studies.

Given that genes are universal to living organisms, genetics can be applied to the study of all living systems, from viruses and bacteria to plants and animals, including humans (as in medical genetics).

For today’s offering, I (authoritatively) choose to forgo viruses, bacteria, plants and animals to concentrate my efforts on the relationship between Homo sapiens, and/or, human beings…

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The fact that living things inherit traits from their parents has been used since prehistoric times to improve crop plants and animals through (selective breeding).

However, the modern science of genetics, which attempts to understand the process of inheritance, only began with the work of Gregor Mendel in the mid-19th century. Although he did not know the physical basis for heredity, Mendel observed that organisms inherit traits by way of discrete units of inheritance, which are now called genes.

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Genes correspond to regions within DNA, a molecule composed of a chain of four different types of nucleotides, .. the sequence of these nucleotides is the genetic information organisms inherit.

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DNA naturally occurs in a double stranded form, with nucleotides on each strand complementary to each other. Each strand can act as a template for creating a new partner strand. This is the physical method for making copies of genes that can be inherited.

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Gregor Mendel

Although the science of genetics began with the applied and theoretical work of Gregor Mendel in the mid-19th century, other theories of inheritance preceded Mendel. A popular theory during Mendel’s time was the concept of blending inheritance: the idea that individuals inherit a smooth blend of traits from their parents. Mendel’s work provided examples where traits were definitely not blended after hybridization, showing that traits are produced by combinations of distinct genes rather than a continuous blend. Blending of traits in the progeny is now explained by the action of multiple genes with quantitative effects.

(Sidebar).

What is quantitative affect?

Answer: A quantitative affect is an effect that can be measured, as opposed to something that is relative.

According to Webster: “rel·a·tive,” Having pertinence or relevance; connected or related.

Continuing…

Another theory that had some support at that time was the inheritance of acquired characteristics: the belief that individuals inherit traits strengthened by their parents.

This theory (commonly associated with Jean-Baptiste Lamarck) is now known to be wrong—the experiences of individuals do not affect the genes they pass to their children, although evidence in the field of epigenetics has revived some aspects of Lamarck’s theory.

(Sidebar).

Epigenetics…

“In biology, and specifically genetics, epigenetics is the study of changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype, caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence – hence the name epi- (Greek: επί- over, above, outer) -genetics, some of which are heritable.”(Source, Wikipedia).

Continuing…

Other theories included the pangenesis of Charles Darwin (which had both acquired and inherited aspects) and Francis Galton’s reformulation of pangenesis as both particulate and inherited.

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Although genes were known to exist on chromosomes, chromosomes are composed of both protein and DNA, and scientists did not know which of these is responsible for inheritance.

In 1928, Frederick Griffith discovered the phenomenon of transformation (see Griffith’s experiment): dead bacteria could transfer genetic material to “transform” other still-living bacteria. Sixteen years later, in 1944, Oswald Theodore Avery, Colin McLeod and Maclyn McCarty identified the molecule responsible for transformation as DNA.

The role of the nucleus as the respository of genetic information in eukaryotes had been established by Hämmerling in 1943 in his work on the single celled alga Acetabularia.

The Hershey-Chase experiment in 1952 confirmed that DNA (rather than protein) is the genetic material of the viruses that infect bacteria, providing further evidence that DNA is the molecule responsible for inheritance.

James D. Watson and Francis Crick determined the structure of DNA in 1953, using the X-ray crystallography work of Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins that indicated DNA had a helical structure (i.e., shaped like a corkscrew).

Their double-helix model had two strands of DNA with the nucleotides pointing inward, each matching a complementary nucleotide on the other strand to form what looks like rungs on a twisted ladder. This structure showed that genetic information exists in the sequence of nucleotides on each strand of DNA. The structure also suggested a simple method for duplication: if the strands are separated, new partner strands can be reconstructed for each based on the sequence of the old strand.

Although the structure of DNA showed how inheritance works, it was still not known how DNA influences the behavior of cells.

In the following years, scientists tried to understand how DNA controls the process of protein production. It was discovered that the cell uses DNA as a template to create matching messenger RNA (a molecule with nucleotides, very similar to DNA). The nucleotide sequence of a messenger RNA is used to create an amino acid sequence in protein; this translation between nucleotide and amino acid sequences is known as the genetic code.

So now that were all experts on how DNA processes the sequences of our (human) genetic code?

We can move on from the laboratory into real life, and/or, what we in general perceive to be real life.

Which of course through technology and acceptance of “unnatural” (man concocted ) ideologies, currently half the population of America has settled for going along to get along. Which of course, by my (conservative) analogy, is the first step to sanctioning Barack Obama and his progressive liberal ilk to establish their (life long) sought after communist foothold in America.

Wake up people, regardless of your political beliefs, race, gender, or religious affiliations, change has never been on God’s agenda.

God created both the dung beetle and the hummingbird with a specific purpose in mind.

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The dung beetle, albeit not particularly attractive to anything or anyone other than another dung beetle, is (tasked) with a definite purpose. The dung beetle is one of natures “unsung heroes” with-in the realm of recycling.

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Hummingbirds are birds that comprise the family Trochilidae. They are among the smallest of birds, ..and (one of natures glorious counterparts to the Honeybee ) ..with most species measuring in the 7.5–13 cm (3–5 in) range.

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(The Bee Hummingbird).

Indeed, the smallest extant bird species is a hummingbird, the 5-cm Bee Hummingbird. They hover in mid-air by rapidly flapping their wings 12 – 80 times per second (depending on the species). They are known as hummingbirds because of the humming sound created by their beating wings, which sometimes sounds like bees or other insects.

To conserve energy while they sleep or when food is scarce, they have the ability to go into a hibernation-like state (torpor) where their metabolic rate is slowed to 1/15th of its normal rate.

(Sidebar).

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(Pretty much like a couch potato in front of a flatscreen TV). 

Continuing… 

When the nights get colder, their body temperature can drop significantly and thus slow down their heart and breathing rate, thus burning much less energy overnight. As the day heats back up, the hummingbird’s body temperature will come back up and they resume their normal activity. They can fly at speeds exceeding 15 m/s (54 km/h; 34 mph), they are also the only group of birds with the ability to fly backwards.Individuals from some species of hummingbirds weigh less than a penny.

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God created tens of billions of species to share this planet with the intent that each species would go forth and multiply.

God did not intend for red birds to procreate with bluebirds, or I’m sure that in his infinite wisdom, he would have simply created a purple bird and been done with his task.

Nor is it my belief that God created man in a multitude of hues, for any other purpose other than to maintain individual integrity.

In my personal experience, accumulated over a lifetime, (currently 71 years and counting) it is my “unequivocal” personal conclusion from personal knowledge, …

(albeit admittedly the Lions share of my opinion),

..has developed via observation of celebrity, and/or, notable black men and women in the public eye.

My conclusion, …

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Which of course, with the science of genetics being what it is, “black, and/or, dark skinned” Homo sapiens who don’t like being (black, ..and/or, ..dark skinned), ..are in an unwinnable endeavor when they seek to (CHANGE) what God provided by interbreeding with lighter skinned Homo sapiens.

The United States Constitution, (in my considered opinion) the greatest document ever composed to protect mankind from mankind.

The Constitution protects American citizens, only if adhered to. If changed, for any reason or any agenda, a citizens right to choose his or her own path will fall to another. So choose wisely my friends, ..there are no “do-overs” when your vote and your identity are gone.

My final word: (concerning the ambition of black men) To “my personal knowledge,” there is no ethnic group on the planet that spends more time and effort seeking out (white) Homo sapiens females for interracial procreation. 

Truth forges understanding, I’ll be back tomorrow

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Crusader Rabbit…

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