Control, ..What does that mean?

remote control 1a

According to Webster: “con·trol,” (in context), The ability to manage or direct.

Question: So what’s the problem?

 short albeit not sweet 1a

Reality: “The United States Government, under the direction and management of the Obama administration, is no longer interested in the American people or in the American dream. Barack Obama has but (one agenda), ..and that agenda is to be omnipotent.

According to Webster: “om·nip·o·tent,” Having unlimited or universal power, authority, or force; all-powerful.

The Problem: Arrogance is not intellect, therefore ineptitude, although both words are equal with ten letters, ..they are not interchangeable.

According to Webster: “in·ep“ti·tude,” (in context) Displaying a lack of judgment, sense, or reason; foolish.

Question: Are the Republicans any better?

Reality: “At this juncture, absolutely not!

According to Webster: “so·lu·tion,” The method or process of solving a problem.

Although Merriam-Webster’s number one definition for the word solution is; “The method or process of solving a problem.”

There is a second, and (in my opinion) more appropriate definition to solve America’s current problems.

2. The state of being dissolved. 

The American people need to solve the problem, ..as “our” politicians no longer work for us. With the disdain between our political parties, ..it is (my sincere belief) ..that we, “We the People,” ..can solve “our” problems, ..by (not) ..choosing (between) the Democrat and Republican candidates offered in the future, ..but rather by (not choosing) candidates from either party in the future.

The two-party system has failed America, America deserves better and America can have better.

“We the people”, by virtue of “our” Constitution composed by men who fought England and King George the third to found this Great Nation “were” promised better.

 the battle of Lexington and Con

 (The battle of Lexington and Concorde)… 

..and/or, ..the beginning of America’s Revolutionary War. 

The Americans who went into battle and died at “Lexington and Concorde” (were not) University graduates, ..they were men with a (love of country) and a (disdain for unreasonable taxation).

Think about it, I’ll be back tomorrow

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Crusader Rabbit…

Question of the day..

Good morning, yeah it’s me again, back in time for breakfast with another serving of reality and common sense.

George Washington the father of

If George Washington is the father of our country, …

According to Webster: “fa·ther,” (in context) A man who creates, originates, or founds something: a title of respect.

 Barack Obama the mother 1a  of our

..what does that make Barack Obama?

our mother or our nanny 4

According to Webster: “moth·er,” (in context) A woman who nurtures a child.

According to Webster: “nan·ny,” A children’s nurse.

 shall I go on 2a

As previously stated, ..many ..many times, as an individual without University (fetchin’ up). I’m pretty much limited to my God-given common sense, ..which of course has served me well for 71 years now.

 Johnny Appleseed 1

Let’s borrow a tree from Johnny Appleseed’s orchard for my next example; …

Johnny, being a conservative hard-working man, saw his apple trees as an entity to be cultivated and maintain, …

 Apple Orchard 1 

..whereas traditionally a liberal individual looks at Johnny’s apples and only sees delicious healthy snack.

rancher 1a 

Of course I could have just as easily made my point with a rancher who views his herd as an entity to be nurtured and maintained…

 Obama indulgence 1

..while “our” liberal population, ..still can’t see beyond lunch.

With Barack Obama, (at least in my opinion) with purpose of forethought and consideration for no one other than his far left disciples, America is circling the economic drain for more than half of its citizens. Which of course, as standard fare, it is once again, and/or, still (the economically challenged half).

The half, (sadly) that voted for Barack Obama’s promises of more free stuff. The half, ..(sadly) ..that either can’t read, ..or doesn’t have the inclination to look beyond the keypad on their smart phones.

According to Webster: “i·ro·ny,” (in context) A literary style employing contrasts for humorous or rhetorical effect.

Statement of fact; “If the youth of America (were) as “smart” as their cell phones, Barack Obama (would not) have been reelected President of the United States.

Think about it, I’ll be back tomorrow

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Crusader Rabbit…

Sometimes Life Sucks..

sometimes life sucks 1

Especially if ‘n you’re a (left wing anti-Second Amendment) liberal who has recently from Virginia to take up residence in the wild west.

Audette Fullbright 1a

 (Rev. Audette Fullbright).

Dear Representative,

I hope you are taking care of yourself during this busy session. I know it is a challenging, compressed time.

I am writing to express my grave concern about House Bill 105. Ample evidence has shown that schools and guns do not mix, and in particular, guns in the hands of amateurs/non-professionals is extremely dangerous, especially in any highly-charged situation. to expose our children to greater risk in their schools by encouraging more guns on campuses is something that we cannot allow.

My husband and I moved to Wyoming not too long ago. We believed it was a good place to raise children. With the recent and reactive expansion of gun laws and the profoundly serious dangers of fracking, we find we are seriously reconsidering our decision, which is wrenching to all of us. However, the safety of our family must come first. We are waiting to see what the legislature does this session. I know of other new-to-Wyoming families in similar contemplation. Your choices matter. It would be sad to see an exodus of educated, childrearing age adults from Wyoming as a result of poor lawmaking.

sincerely,

Rev. Audette Fulbright

 Rep. Hans Hunt 1a

(Rep. Hans Hunt).

Hunt’s response: …

Rev. Fulbright,

I’ll be blunt. If you don’t like the political atmosphere of Wyoming, then by all means, leave. We, who have been here a very long time (I am proudly 4th generation) are quite proud of our independent heritage. I don’t expect a “mass exodus” from our state just because we’re standing up for our rights. As to your comments on fracking, I would point out that you’re basing your statement on “dangers” that have not been scientifically founded or proved as of yet.

It offends me to no end when liberal out-of-staters such as yourself move into Wyoming, trying to get away from where they came from, and then pompously demand that Wyoming conform to their way of thinking. We are, and will continue to be, a state which stands a head above the rest in terms of economic security. Our ability to do that is, in large part, to our “live and let live” mentality when it comes to allowing economic development, and limiting government oversight. So, to conclude, if you’re so worried about what our legislature is working on, then go back home.

Sincerely,

Hans Hunt

Representative Hans Hunt

House District 02

So what’s my part in this? Simple, ..I’m a transplanted South Dakotan, ..that’s had a concealed (carry permit) in his pocket for the last nineteen and a half years.

 I feel safe how about you

Have a safe day, I’ll be back tomorrow

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Crusader Rabbit…

My Brother from another Mother?

Barack and a brother

Question: What the hell does that mean? 

Well, according to (at least a half a dozen) sites on the World Wide Web, ..and/or, ..cyberspace?

Liking the format provided by Yahoo.com, I offer you the definition(s) below…

Urban expression Brother From Another Mother

A term used to describe a good friend that you have known almost your whole life. The word “brother” is used because the friend is extremely close to you to the point that he is almost like your brother–but from a different mother. And that rhymes. And you know that rhymes. Admit it!

“What’s happenin’ my brother from another mother?”
by Elmer, Jan 20, 2005.

A friend to whom you are not related but spend most of your time with especially around their home.

A person who almost lives with you after abandonment by their parents or their running away from their parents.

My brother from another mother eats with us every night cause his moms a late night hooker. (Source, yahoo.com).

Although I originate from a family of eight, a mother a father, four brothers and a sister…

 Roper Family 1a

..throughout my life I have had many close friends, in school, in the military, and while a member of America’s workforce, I personally have no recollection of ever alluding to the phrase in question; “My brother from another mother.”

With or with out the “slang preface” (yo). 

All life is a journey, (or at least that’s the way I choose to view it), …

 life is a journey 1

According to Webster: “jour·ney,” The act of traveling from one place to another; a trip.

Which of course sounds simplistic when you presented in 10 words, (unless of course) you’re one of those folks that “split hairs” ..and count (A) as a word, ..in which case we’re talking eleven.

Life is a beautiful thing, all life. Although my life did not begin on a paved road through a majestic panorama, I have done well, regardless of ill decisions made in my youth, I am proud to have served the stars and stripes.

I have never been unemployed, except by my own choosing and when I’ve had rent to pay, ..it was always paid on time. I understand hunger, both for sustenance and for acquisition, as I have experienced both.

I have experienced love, ..and I have experienced hate. My road has been under construction for seventy-one years now and to anyone who might value my opinion? I say to you; ..

 love is a far better path 2b 

Think about it, I’ll be back tomorrow

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Crusader Rabbit…

Mandating Charity…

James Madison 1

To understand the resolve of our founding fathers, one need not look beyond the writtings of James Madison.

“The government of the United States is a definite government, confined to specified objects.

It is not like the state governments, whose powers are more general.

Charity is no part of the legislative duty of the government.”– James Madison

Within James Madison’s legacy to America and its citizens, the more I scrutinize Madison’s Federalist papers, the more I realize one of two things?

Either Barack Obama has never read Madison’s Federalist papers, or as appraised, he is the most unpatriotic individual ever to hold the office of President of the United States.

(Personal Opinion): “I choose to believe the latter.”

“We can either settle for a country where a shrinking number of people (do really well) ..while a growing number of Americans barely get by. Or we can restore an economy where everyone gets a fair shot, ..everyone does (their fair share) and (everyone plays by the same set of rules).

– Barack Obama.

Question: Is Barack Obama so arrogant and so out of touch with reality, in America and around the world that he actually believes that socialism works?

Once again, speaking only for myself, ..a (common sense), common citizen, I find nothing fair, level or even about living under the thumb of an individual, who when it suits his whim, and/or, purpose, will take pen in hand and disregard both the legislative branch of our government and our Constitution.

looking stupid.2a jpg

 (Barack Hussein Obama). 

“There are more instances of the abridgment of the freedom of the people by gradual and silent encroachments of those in power than by violent and sudden usurpations.” — James Madison

A government entitlement is mandating taxpayers to provide others with charity.

Postscript: (FOR YOUR and/or, “Liberals” INFORMATION); “Barack Obama (is) one of the ..(doinf really well) ..people, ..that he spoke of in his Quote.

Think about it, I’ll be back tomorrow

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Crusader Rabbit…

Open Letter to the President..

Evan Todd - Columbine Servivor 1a

Evan Todd – Columbine survivor.

Mr. President,

As a student who was shot and wounded during the Columbine massacre, I have a few thoughts on the current gun debate. In regards to your gun control initiatives:

Universal Background Checks

First, a universal background check will have many devastating effects. It will arguably have the opposite impact of what you propose. If adopted, criminals will know that they can not pass a background check legally, so they will resort to other avenues. With the conditions being set by this initiative, it will create a large black market for weapons and will support more criminal activity and funnel additional money into the hands of thugs, criminals, and people who will do harm to American citizens.

Second, universal background checks will create a huge bureaucracy that will cost an enormous amount of tax payers dollars and will straddle us with more debt. We cannot afford it now, let alone create another function of government that will have a huge monthly bill attached to it.

Third, is a universal background check system possible without universal gun registration? If so, please define it for us. Universal registration can easily be used for universal confiscation. I am not at all implying that you, sir, would try such a measure, but we do need to think about our actions through the lens of time.

It is not impossible to think that a tyrant, to the likes of Mao, Castro, Che, Hitler, Stalin, Mussolini, and others, could possibly rise to power in America. It could be five, ten, twenty, or one hundred years from now — but future generations have the natural right to protect themselves from tyrannical government just as much as we currently do. It is safe to assume that this liberty that our forefathers secured has been a thorn in the side of would-be tyrants ever since the Second Amendment was adopted.

Ban on Military-Style Assault Weapons

The evidence is very clear pertaining to the inadequacies of the assault weapons ban. It had little to no effect when it was in place from 1994 until 2004. It was during this time that I personally witnessed two fellow students murder twelve of my classmates and one teacher. The assault weapons ban did not deter these two murderers, nor did the other thirty-something laws that they broke.

Gun ownership is at an all time high. And although tragedies like Columbine and Newtown are exploited by ideologues and special-interest lobbying groups, crime is at an all time low. The people have spoken. Gun store shelves have been emptied. Gun shows are breaking attendance records. Gun manufacturers are sold out and back ordered. Shortages on ammo and firearms are countrywide. The American people have spoken and are telling you that our Second Amendment shall not be infringed.

10-Round Limit for Magazines

Virginia Tech was the site of the deadliest school shooting in U.S. history. Seung-Hui Cho used two of the smallest caliber hand guns manufactured and a handful of ten round magazines. There are no substantial facts that prove that limited magazines would make any difference at all.
Second, this is just another law that endangers law-abiding citizens. I’ve heard you ask, “why does someone need 30 bullets to kill a deer?”

Let me ask you this: Why would you prefer criminals to have the ability to out-gun law-abiding citizens? Under this policy, criminals will still have their 30-round magazines, but the average American will not. Whose side are you on?

Lastly, when did they government get into the business of regulating “needs?” This is yet another example of government overreaching and straying from its intended purpose.

Selling to Criminals

Mr. President, these are your words: “And finally, Congress needs to help, rather than hinder, law enforcement as it does its job. We should get tougher on people who buy guns with the express purpose of turning around and selling them to criminals. And we should severely punish anybody who helps them do this.”

Why don’t we start with Eric Holder and thoroughly investigate the Fast and Furious program?

Furthermore, the vast majority of these mass murderers bought their weapons legally and jumped through all the hoops — because they were determined to murder. Adding more hoops and red tape will not stop these types of people.

It doesn’t now — so what makes you think it will in the future? Criminals who cannot buy guns legally just resort to the black market. Criminals and murderers will always find a way.

Critical Examination

Mr. President, in theory, your initiatives and proposals sound warm and fuzzy — but in reality they are far from what we need. Your initiatives seem to punish law-abiding American citizens and enable the murderers, thugs, and other lowlifes who wish to do harm to others.

Let me be clear: These ideas are the worst possible initiatives if you seriously care about saving lives and also upholding your oath of office. There is no dictate, law, or regulation that will stop bad things from happening — and you know that. Yet you continue to push the rhetoric. Why?

You said, “If we can save just one person it is worth it.” Well here are a few ideas that will save more that one individual:

First, forget all of your current initiatives and 23 purposed executive orders.

They will do nothing more than impede law-abiding citizens and breach the intent of the Constitution.

Each initiative steals freedom, and grants more power to an already-overreaching government, and empowers and enables criminals to run amok.

Second, press Congress to repeal the “Gun Free Zone Act.”

Don’t allow America’s teachers and students to be endangered one-day more. These parents and teachers have the natural right to defend themselves and not be looked at as criminals.

There is no reason teachers must disarm themselves to perform their jobs. There is also no reason a parent or volunteer should be disarmed when they cross the school line.

This is your chance to correct history and restore liberty.

This simple act of restoring freedom will deter would-be murderers and for those who try, they will be met with resistance.

Mr. President, do the right thing, restore freedom, and save lives. Show the American people that you stand with them and not with thugs and criminals.

Respectfully,

Severely Concerned Citizen, Evan M. Todd

 wake me when he's finished 1a

(Someone, ..please wake me when he’s finished). 

Enjoy the rest of your day, I’ll be back tomorrow

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Crusader Rabbit…

White People?

White People 2White People LOGO 1

..rather than being a straightforward description of skin color, is a term denoting a specific set of ethnic groups and functions as a color metaphor for race.

The definition of a “white person,” …

White People 3a

 ..differs according to geographical and historical context.

Various social constructions of “whiteness” have had implications in terms of national identity, consanguinity, public policy, religion, population statistics, racial segregation, affirmative action, eugenics, racial marginalization and racial quotas.

The concept has been applied with varying degrees of formality and internal consistency in disciplines including sociology, politics, genetics, biology, medicine, biomedicine, language, culture and law.

History of the term…

 White People 1

The notion of “white people” or a “white race” as a large group of populations contrasting with non-white or “colored” originates in the 17th century. Pragmatic description of populations as “white” in reference to their skin color predates this notion and is found in Greco-Roman ethnography and other ancient sources.

 Vicki Leon 1a

 (Vicki Leon) 

Vicki Leon contrasts this in her book…

uppity women of ancient times

”Uppity Women of Ancient Times,”

..noting that the Sumerians paintings and mosaics depict a people possessing dark blue eyes 

In the literature of the Ancient Near East and Classical Antiquity, descriptions of the physical aspect of various nations in terms of color is commonplace.

The Sumerians referred to themselves as ùĝ saĝ gíg-ga, meaning “the black-headed people”.

 fresco of the tomb

The Ancient Egyptian (New Kingdom) funerary text known as the Book of Gates distinguishes “four races of men”.

These are the Egyptians, the Levantine peoples or “Asiatics”, the “Nubians” and the “fair-skinned Libyans”.

Xenophon describes the Ethiopians as black, and the Persian troops as white compared to the sun-tanned skin of Greek troops.

Herodotus similarly used Melanchroes “dark-skinned” for the Egyptians and he compared them to the Aithiopsi “burned-faced” for the Ethiopians. Herodotus also describes the Scythian Budini as having deep blue eyes and bright red hair.

These color adjectives are typically found in contrast to the “standard” set by the own group, not as a self-description.

Classicist James Dee found that, “the Greeks do not describe themselves as “white people,” or as anything else because they had no regular word in their color vocabulary for themselves, and we can see that the concept of a distinct ‘white race’ was not present in the ancient world.”

Assignment of positive and negative connotations of white and black date to the classical period in a number of Indo-European languages, but these differences were not applied to skin color per se.

Religious conversion was described figuratively as a change in skin color. Similarly, the Rigveda uses krsna tvac “black skin” as a metaphor for irreligiosity.

The pseudo-Aristotelian Physiognomica (2nd century BC) in keeping with the Aristotelian doctrine of the golden mean postulates that the ideal skin tone was to be found somewhere between very dark and very light:

“Those who are too black are cowards, like for instance, the Egyptians and Ethiopians. But those who are excessively white are also cowards as we can see from the example of women and Europeans, the complexion of courage is between the two.”

Similar views were held by a number of Arabic writers during the time of the medieval Caliphate period. Some Arabs at the time viewed their “swarthy” skin as the ideal skin tone, in comparison to the darker Sub-Saharan Africans and the fairer “ruddy people” (which included Levantines, Persians, Turks, North Caucasians, South Caucasian and Europeans).

“White people” and modern racial hierarchies…

The term “white race” or “white people” entered the major European languages in the later 17th century, originating with the racialization of slavery at the time, in the context of the Atlantic slave trade and enslavement of native peoples in the Spanish Empire.

While first a social category, it has repeatedly been ascribed to strains of blood, ancestry, and physical traits, and was eventually made into a subject of scientific research, which culminated in scientific racism, before being widely repudiated by the scientific community.

According to historian Irene Silverblatt, “Race thinking … made social categories into racial truths.”

Bruce David Baum, citing the work of Ruth Frankenberg, states, “the history of modern racist domination has been bound up with the history of how European peoples defined themselves (and sometimes some other peoples) as members of a superior ‘white race.'”

Alastair Bonnett argues that ‘white identity’, as it is presently conceived, is an American project, reflecting American interpretations of race and history.

According to Gregory Jay, a professor of English at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Before the age of exploration, group differences were largely based on language, religion, and geography. … the European had always reacted a bit hysterically to the differences of skin color and facial structure between themselves and the populations encountered in Africa, Asia, and the Americas.

(see, for example), …

Shakespeare’s dramatization of racial conflict in Othello and The Tempest). Beginning in the 1500s, Europeans began to develop what became known as “scientific racism,” the attempt to construct a biological rather than cultural definition of race …

Whiteness, then, emerged as what we now call a “pan-ethnic” category, as a way of merging a variety of European ethnic populations into a single “race” … Gregory Jay, “Who Invented White People?”

White People as a Social Category…

A three-part racial schema in color terms was used in seventeenth century Latin America under Spanish rule. Irene Silverblatt traces “race thinking” in South America to the social categories of colonialism and state formation: “White, black, and brown are abridged, abstracted versions of colonizer, slave, and colonized.”

“The term white came into wide use in the British colonies in America from the 1680s.” …

White people in the science of race 18th century beginnings.

 Carolus Linnaeus 2a

 (Carolus Linnaeus)

In 1758, Carolus Linnaeus proposed what he considered to be natural taxonomic categories of the human species. He distinguished between Homo sapiens and Homo sapiens europaeus, and he later added four geographical subdivisions of humans: white Europeans, red Americans, yellow Asians and black Africans. Although Linnaeus intended them as objective classifications, he used both taxonomical and cultural data in his subdivision descriptions.

 Johann Friedrich Blumenbach 1a

(Johann Friedrich Blumenbach)

In 1775, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach described the white race as “the white color holds the first place, such as it is that most Europeans. The redness of cheeks in this variety is almost peculiar to it: at all events it is but seldom seen in the rest…  Color white, Cheeks rosy”.

He categorized humans into five races, which largely corresponded with Linnaeus’ classifications, except for the addition of Oceanians (whom he called Malay).

He characterized the racial classification scheme of Metzger as making “two principal varieties as extremes:

(1) the white man native of Europe, of the northern parts of Asia, America and Africa..”,

 classic white European male 5a

(Classic white European male) 

..and the racial classification scheme of John Hunter as having, “seven varieties:…

(2) brownish as the southern Europeans, Turks, Abyssinians, Samoiedes and Lapps;

White, as the remaining Europeans, the Mingrelians and Kabardinski”. Blumenbach is known for arguing that physical characteristics like skin color, cranial profile, etc., were correlated with group character and aptitude. Craniometry and phrenology would attempt to make physical appearance correspond with racial categories.

The fairness and relatively high brows of Caucasians were held to be apt physical expressions of a loftier mentality and a more generous spirit.

The epicanthic folds around the eyes of Mongolians and their slightly sallow outer epidermal layer bespoke their supposedly crafty, literal-minded nature.

Later in life, Blumenbach encountered in Switzerland “eine zum Verlieben schöne Négresse” (“a Negress so beautiful to fall in love with”).

Further anatomical study led him to the conclusion that ‘individual Africans differ as much, or even more, from other individual Africans as Europeans differ from Europeans’.

Furthermore he concluded that Africans were not inferior to the rest of mankind ‘concerning healthy faculties of understanding, excellent natural talents and mental capacities’.

These later ideas were far less influential than his earlier assertions with regard to the perceived relative qualities of the different races, which opened the way to secular and scientific racism.

Immanuel Kant 1a

 (Immanuel Kant) 

In a 1775 work, Von den verschiedenen Rassen der Menschen (“Of [About] The Different Races of Humans”), German philosopher Immanuel Kant used the term “weiß” (white) to refer to “the white one [race] of northern Europe.”

19th and 20th century: the Caucasian race…

 Huxley’s map 1

Huxley’s map of racial categories from On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind (1870).

Huxley’s Xanthochroi or “light whites” are shown in red. They gradually blend into the category of Melanochroi or “dark whites” (shown in pink) in Southern Europe and North Africa, and into the Mongoloids B category ( light brown) in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia. Blending of all three types mentioned is indicated for the Balkans, Anatolia, the Levant, Persia and Northern India.

Caucasian race…

The study into race and ethnicity in the 18th and 19th centuries developed into what would later be termed scientific racism. During the period of the mid-19th to mid-20th century, race scientists, including most physical anthropologists classified the world’s populations into three, four, or five races, which, depending on the authority consulted, were further divided into various sub-races.

Caucasian woman 7a

 (Caucasian woman)

According to Webster: “Cau·ca·sian,” 1. Anthropology. Of, relating to being a major human racial division traditionally distinguished by physical characteristics such as very light to brown skin pigmentation and straight to wavy or curly hair, and including peoples indigenous to Europe, northern Africa, western Asia, and India. No longer in scientific use.

During this period the Caucasian race, named after people of the North Caucasus (Caucasus Mountains) but extending to all Europeans, figured as one of these races, and was incorporated as a formal category of both scientific research and, in countries including the United States, social classification.

 Mongoloid woman 1a

(Mongoloid woman)

According to Webster: “Mon·gol·oid,” 1. Anthropology. Of, relating to being a major human racial division traditionally distinguished by physical characteristics such as yellowish-brown skin pigmentation, straight black hair, dark eyes with pronounced epicanthic folds, and prominent cheekbones and including peoples indigenous to central and eastern Asia. No longer in scientific use.

There was never any scholarly consensus on the delineation between the Caucasian race, including the populations of Europe, and the Mongoloid one, including the populations of East Asia.

Thus, Carleton S. Coon (1939) included the populations native to all of Central and Northern Asia under the Caucasian label, while Thomas Henry Huxley (1870) classified the same populations as Mongoloid, and Lothro Stoddard (1920) excluded the populations of the Middle East and North Africa as well as those of Central Asia, classifying them as “brown”, and counted as “white” only the European peoples.

Some authorities, following Huxley (1870), distinguished the Xanthochroi or “light whites” of Northern Europe with the Melanochroi or “dark whites” of the Mediterranean. 21st century.

Alastair Bonnett has stated that, a strong “current of scientific research supports the theory that Europeans were but one expression of a wider racial group (termed sometimes Caucasian), a group that included peoples from Asia and North Africa”.

Bonnett, does, however, note that this is not a commonplace definition: in Europe and North America the inclusion of non-Europeans is a “technicality little favoured outside certain immigration bureaucracies and traditional anthropology.”

Raj Bhopal and Liam Donaldson opine that white people are a heterogeneous group, and the term white should therefore be abandoned as a classification for the purposes of epidemiology and health research, and identifications based on geographic origin and migration history be used instead.

Definitions of white have changed over the years, including the official definitions used in many countries, such as the United States and Brazil.

Some defied official regulations through the phenomenon of “passing”, many of them becoming white people, either temporarily or permanently. Through the mid-to-late 20th century, numerous countries had formal legal standards or procedures defining racial categories.

However, as critiques of racism and scientific arguments against the existence of race arose, a trend towards self-identification of racial status arose.

Below are some census definitions of white, which may differ from the social definition of white within the same country. The social definition has also been added where possible.

Argentina…

Ethnography of Argentina and Argentines of European descent…

Argentina, although no official censuses based on ethnic classification have been carried out in Argentina, some international sources state that White Argentines and other whites (Europeans and Middle-Easterners) in Argentina make up somewhere between 89.7%, (around 36.7 million people) and 85.8%, (34.4 million) of the total population.

Australia…

From 1788, when the first British colony in Australia was founded, until the early 19th century, most immigrants to Australia were English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish convicts.

These were augmented by small numbers of free settlers from the British Isles and other European countries. However, until the mid-19th century, there were few restrictions on immigration, although members of ethnic minorities tended to be assimilated into the Anglo-Celtic populations.

People of many nationalities, including many non-white people, emigrated to Australia during the goldrushes of the 1850s.

However, the vast majority was still white and the goldrushes inspired the first racist activism and policy, directed mainly at Chinese people.

From the late 19th century, the Colonial/State and later federal governments of Australia restricted all permanent immigration to the country by non-Europeans. These policies became known as the “White Australia policy”, which was consolidated and enabled by the Immigration Restriction Act 1901, but was never universally applied.

Brazil…

Recent censuses in Brazil are conducted on the basis of self-identification. In the 2000 census, 53.7% of Brazilians (approximately 93 million people in 2000) were White and 39.1% Pardo or multiracial Brazilians; but in 2008 a new National Survey of Household was conducted, and the percentage of Brazilians who self-identified as “Brancos” diminished to 48.4% (92 million people), while the Pardos increased up to 43.8%.

This significant percentage change is considered to be caused by people who used to identify themselves as White and now reappreciated their African and/or Amerindian and/or East Asian ancestry, and so they changed their self-identification to “Pardo” and “Asian”.

Chile…

About 30% of Chilean population is Caucasian according to a research of the University of Chile. Other studies estimates White population at 20%, or 52.7% of Chilean population.

Cuba…

Contrary to most other Caribbean nations, Cuba became predominantly populated by European immigrants (followed in such regard by Puerto Rico). In 1958, it was estimated that approximately 74% of Cubans were of European ancestry, mainly of Spanish origin, 10% of African ancestry, 15% of both African and European ancestry (mulattos), and a small 1% of the population was Asian, predominantly Chinese.

Puerto Rico…

Puerto Rican people and Demographics of Puerto Rico…

Contrary to most other Caribbean nations, Puerto Rico gradually became predominantly populated by European immigrants. Puerto Ricans of Spanish and Italian descent comprise the majority.

In 1899, one year after the U.S invaded and took control of the island, 61.8% of people self-identified as White. One hundred years later (2000), the total increased to 80.5% (3,064,862); not because there has been an influx of whites toward the island (or an exodus of non-White people), but a change of race conceptions, mainly because of Puerto Rican elites to portray Puerto Rico’s image as the “white island of the Antilles”, partly as a response to scientific racism.

United States…

White American, European American, and Definitions of whiteness in the United   States…

The current U.S. Census definition includes white “a person having origins in any of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa.”

The U.S. Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation describes white people as “having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa through racial categories used in the UCR Program adopted from the Statistical Policy Handbook (1978) and published by the Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce.”

The “white” category in the UCR includes non-black Hispanics.

The cultural boundaries separating white Americans from other racial or ethnic categories are contested and always changing. According to John Tehranian, among those not considered white at some points in American history have been: the Irish, Germans, Jews, Italians, Spaniards, white Hispanics, Slavs, and Greeks.

Studies have found that while current parameters officially encompass Arabs as part of the White American racial category, many Arab Americans from places other than the Levant feel they are not white and are not perceived as white by American society.

Professor David R. Roediger of the University of Illinois, suggests that the construction of the white race in the United States was an effort to mentally distance slave owners from slaves.

By the 18th century, white had become well established as a racial term. The process of officially being defined as white by law often came about in court disputes over pursuit of citizenship.

The Immigration Act of 1790 offered naturalization only to “any alien, being a free white person”. In at least 52 cases, people denied the status of white by immigration officials sued in court for status as white people.

By 1923, courts had vindicated a “common-knowledge” standard, concluding that “scientific evidence” was incoherent.

Legal scholar John Tehranian argues that in reality this was a “performance-based” standard, relating to religious practices, education, intermarriage and a community’s role in the United States.

In 1923, the Supreme Court decided in United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind that people of India were not “free white men” entitled to citizenship, despite anthropological evidence in “the extreme northwestern districts of India” there is present the “Caucasian or Aryan race” with an “intermixture of blood” from the “dark skinned Dravidian”.

A report from the PewResearchCenter in 2008 projects that by 2050, Non-Hispanic white Americans will make up 47% of the population, down from 67% projected in 2005.

White Americans made up nearly 90% of the population in 1950.

One-third of Americans classified as “white” in a study contained between two and twenty percent African genetic admixture, which can be extrapolated to about 74 million whites in America with this admixture.

One drop rule…

The one drop rule, that a person with any amount of known African ancestry (however small or invisible) is not white–is a classification that was used in parts of the United States.

It is a colloquial term for a set of laws passed by 18 US states between 1910 and 1931, many as a consequence of Plessy v. Ferguson, a Supreme Court decision that upheld the concept of racial segregation by accepting a separate but equal argument.

The set of laws was finally declared unconstitutional in 1967, when the Supreme Court ruled on anti-miscegenation laws while hearing Loving v. Virginia, which also found that Virginia’s Racial Integrity Act of 1924 was unconstitutional.

The one drop rule attempted to create a bifurcated system of either black or white regardless of a person’s physical appearance, but sometimes failed as people with African ancestry sometimes passed as “white”, as noted above.

This contrasts with the more flexible social structures present in Latin America (derived from the Spanish colonial era casta system) where there were less clear-cut divisions between various ethnicities.

As a result of centuries of having children with white people, the majority of African Americans have some European admixture, and many white people also have African ancestry.

Robert P. Stuckert, member of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at OhioStateUniversity said that the majority of the descendants of African slaves are white.

Writer and editor Debra Dickerson questions the legitimacy of the one drop rule, stating that “easily one-third of black people have white DNA”. She argues that in ignoring their European ancestry, African Americans are denying their fully articulated multi-racial identities.

The peculiarity of the one drop rule may be illustrated by the case of singer Mariah Carey, who was publicly called “another white girl trying to sing black”, but in an interview with Larry King, responded that (despite her physical appearance) and the fact that she was raised primarily by (her white mother), due to the one drop rule she did not “feel white”.

Uruguay…

Uruguayans and Argentines share closely related demographic ties. Different estimates state that Uruguay’s population of 3.4 million is composed of 88% to 93% white Uruguayans.

Uruguay’s population is heavily populated by people of European origin, mainly Spaniards, followed closely by Italians, including numbers of French, Germans, Irish, British, Swiss, Eastern Europeans, Southern Europeans, Dutch, Belgians, Austrians, Scandinavians, Lebanese, and Armenians which migrated to Uruguay in the late 19th century and 20th century.

According to the 2006 National Survey of Homes by the Uruguayan National Institute of Statistics: 94.6% self-identified as having a white background, 9.1% chose Afro/Black ancestry, and 4.5% chose a native American ancestry (people surveyed were allowed to choose more than one option).

I could continue with my own two cents, however since I doubt that even half of those who begin reading this offering have reached this point, consequently I will leave my…

my two cents

two cents on the table until another day…

Have a great day, I’ll be back tomorrow

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Crusader Rabbit…

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